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Periphery countries are those that exist on the outer edges of global trade.

Botswana in the Modern World-System - eBook

There are a variety of reasons that periphery countries remain the way they are. One important factor that keeps countries in the periphery is the lack of development of technology. Periphery countries are known for exporting raw goods to core countries. What tends to happen is the maximum gain a periphery nation could earn is less than needed to maintain an equilibrium between costs and revenues.

One thing periphery nations could do is to stop the increase of exports. Although periphery nations are exploited by core countries, there is a purpose to the unequal exchanges of goods. For instance, the core countries have an incentive to gain a profit and this enables the world market to further grow.

The status of health promotion in Botswana

At times, there is a change in the balance of trade between the periphery and core countries. This occurs when the prices of exports from periphery countries decrease at a faster rate than the exports from core nations. For instance, there is an increase in unemployment as well as a decrease in state income.

This type of interaction is unique because the core country involved is somewhat weaker than normal.

The Modern World-System IV by Immanuel Wallerstein - Paperback - University of California Press

An example of this occurring is the growth of the industrial capabilities of Italy and Russia towards the end of the 19th century. This has also occurred in other periphery nations such as Brazil , Mexico , and South Africa. The world system at this time was much different from the world system of today. Several areas were beginning to develop into trading powers but none were able to gain total control.

For this reason, a core and periphery developed in each region as opposed to a global scale. Cities began to become the "core" with the more agricultural countryside becoming a sort of "periphery".

The most underdeveloped region that was still involved in trade at the time was Europe. It had the weakest core and periphery areas. Two examples of periphery countries in the late 15th century and early 16th century are Poland and Latin America. At this time, Poland was mainly exporting wheat to other areas of Europe and Poland wanted cheap labor. Also, Latin America experienced an enslavement of their natives and imports of slaves from Africa. Forced mining labor was placed on the slaves, which enabled Latin America to export cheap goods to Europe.

These areas of the world were also different from during medieval times in Europe. They are different because during the late 15th century and early 16th century, Poland and Latin America were producing goods and exporting them rather than simply consuming their raw goods. The relationship that the periphery countries have with the core countries is one that is defined by the exploitation of the periphery countries by the core countries. As many countries began to industrialize they looked for cheap goods and products. In most cases it is much easier and inexpensive to get these goods from other countries.

For the core countries to remain at the core, it is necessary that the periphery countries keep producing these cheap goods and remain mostly agricultural. It is argued that if these countries are never able industrialize, they will continue to remain on the periphery. The current relationship between core countries and periphery countries was mostly defined in the era of imperialism that occurred in the late 19th through the early 20th centuries. It was at this time that the countries with the strongest economies and militaries began to exploit those countries with weaker states.

Some examples of the time include Brazil's coffee production and Cuba's cigar production. Periphery countries are continuously exploited by countries due to the exportation of surpluses of raw goods to the more technologically industrialized core countries for manufacturing and distribution. There are, however, ways in which periphery countries can rise from their poor status and become semi-periphery countries or even core countries. It is crucial for the core countries to keep exploiting the natural resources of the periphery countries and to keep the governments semi-stable or else it could cause economic unrest for the core countries as a whole.

There are several ways in which periphery countries are able to escape their poor status. Some of these ways are stabilizing their governments, becoming more industrialized and using natural resources to benefit themselves rather than core countries, and creating a better education system. One main way in which a periphery country can rise to semi-periphery or core status is through the stabilization of its government.

A country with a dictatorship type government is much easier to exploit and corrupt than one with a well organized, elected government and core countries use this to their advantage. There was a problem with saving your item s for later. You can go to cart and save for later there. Tell us if something is incorrect.

World-Systems Theory

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Botswana at a Glance

Add to Registry. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Customer Reviews. Write a review. The Registrar and his assistants are appointed in accordance with the Public Services Act on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission. Their main function is to plan, manage and coordinate the successful implementation of the mandate of the Administration of justice in the High Court and Court of Appeal. Court Bailiffs are also officers of the courts who are responsible for actual execution of judgments and court orders.

Messengers assist all the court officials in the discharge of their functions. Proclamations and government notices. Currently it comes in 16 volumes whereby in each volume statutes are arranged alphabetically and chronologically. Botswana Government Gazette:. Previously this publication was called Bechuanaland Government Gazette between and It is published on a weekly basis and said to be an invaluable source of information for the latest legislations and administrative notices. Previously this practice was irregular e. Online Sources:.

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Commercial and Company Law:. Conflict of Laws:. Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Evidence:. Customary Law:.

Constitutional framework

Environmental Law:. Family Law:. Intellectual Property:. Labour Law:.