Lindsey Green-Simms reads the story as anti-homophobic, creating an alliance between the Senegalese woman and the narrator Ujunwa. Is queerness translatable? In this paper I examine this intersection in the works of Kenyan queer-identified authors and artists. The French and, to some extent, Spanish languages enable this mutual border crossing between surviving Armenian and Aztec cultures. In my presentation, I will read The Palimpsest Man as writing the impossibility of fully encountering, thus translating, the other. The quotation in the epigram, addressing the relationship between the Armenian student and the Mexican-Aztec scholar, partially formulates this impossibility.
Such a vision of love can be read, significantly, as a ceaseless attempt to live authentically the diasporic state in which Western Armenian literature, a kind of minor world literature, has existed for the past century. Cliques of pro- and anti-Romantics developed, and productions were often accompanied by raucous vocalizing by the two sides, including the shouted assertion by one theatregoer in that "Shakespeare, c'est l'aide-de-camp de Wellington" "Shakespeare is Wellington 's aide-de-camp ". Victor Hugo published as a poet in the s before achieving success on the stage with Hernani —a historical drama in a quasi-Shakespearian style that had famously riotous performances on its first run in The preface to his unperformed play "Cromwell" gives an important manifesto of French Romanticism, stating that "there are no rules, or models".
Alfred de Vigny remains best known as a dramatist, with his play on the life of the English poet Chatterton perhaps his best work. George Sand was a central figure of the Parisian literary scene, famous both for her novels and criticism and her affairs with Chopin and several others;  she too was inspired by the theatre, and wrote works to be staged at her private estate.
Stendhal is today probably the most highly regarded French novelist of the period, but he stands in a complex relation with Romanticism, and is notable for his penetrating psychological insight into his characters and his realism, qualities rarely prominent in Romantic fiction. As a survivor of the French retreat from Moscow in , fantasies of heroism and adventure had little appeal for him, and like Goya he is often seen as a forerunner of Realism. Romanticism in Poland is often taken to begin with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz 's first poems in , and end with the crushing of the January Uprising of against the Russians.
FLAUBERT'S DICTIONARY OF RECEIVED IDEAS
It was strongly marked by interest in Polish history. This close connection between Polish Romanticism and Polish history became one of the defining qualities of the literature of Polish Romanticism period, differentiating it from that of other countries. They had not suffered the loss of national statehood as was the case with Poland.
The Polish intelligentsia, along with leading members of its government, left Poland in the early s, during what is referred to as the " Great Emigration ", resettling in France, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey, and the United States. Their art featured emotionalism and irrationality , fantasy and imagination, personality cults, folklore and country life, and the propagation of ideals of freedom. In the second period, many of the Polish Romantics worked abroad, often banished from Poland by the occupying powers due to their politically subversive ideas.
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Their work became increasingly dominated by the ideals of political struggle for freedom and their country's sovereignty. Elements of mysticism became more prominent. There developed the idea of the poeta wieszcz the prophet. The wieszcz bard functioned as spiritual leader to the nation fighting for its independence. The most notable poet so recognized was Adam Mickiewicz. Unlike his predecessors, who called for victory at whatever price in Poland's struggle against Russia, Krasinski emphasized Poland's spiritual role in its fight for independence, advocating an intellectual rather than a military superiority.
Pushkin's work influenced many writers in the 19th century and led to his eventual recognition as Russia's greatest poet. Influenced heavily by Lord Byron, Lermontov sought to explore the Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self, while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of love.
Tyutchev commonly operated with such categories as night and day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, and the still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Baratynsky's style was fairly classical in nature, dwelling on the models of the previous century. Romanticism in Spanish literature developed a well-known literature with a huge variety of poets and playwrights. Spanish Romanticism also influenced regional literatures. There are scholars who consider Spanish Romanticism to be Proto-Existentialism because it is more anguished than the movement in other European countries.
Foster et al. According to Richard Caldwell, the writers that we now identify with Spain's romanticism were actually precursors to those who galvanized the literary movement that emerged in the s. Alexandre, bishop of Angra , in the precepts of Neoclassicism , which can be observed in his early work. Almeida Garrett had participated in the Liberal Revolution , which caused him to exile himself in England in and then in France, after the Vila-Francada.
He was also deeply interested in Portuguese folkloric verse, which resulted in the publication of Romanceiro "Traditional Portuguese Ballads" , that recollect a great number of ancient popular ballads, known as "romances" or "rimances", in redondilha maior verse form, that contained stories of chivalry , life of saints , crusades , courtly love , etc.
He too was forced to exile to Great Britain and France because of his liberal ideals. All of his poetry and prose are unlike Almeida Garrett's entirely Romantic, rejecting Greco-Roman myth and history. He became an unquestionable master for successive Ultra-Romantic generations, whose influence would not be challenged until the famous Coimbra Question. He also created polemics by translating Goethe 's Faust without knowing German, but using French versions of the play.
An early Portuguese expression of Romanticism is found already in poets such as Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage especially in his sonnets dated at the end of the 18th century and Leonor de Almeida Portugal, Marquise of Alorna.
Before that date, Ugo Foscolo had already published poems anticipating Romantic themes. His writings were influenced by his hatred for the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas , and filled with themes of blood and terror, using the metaphor of a slaughterhouse to portray the violence of Rosas' dictatorship. Brazilian Romanticism is characterized and divided in three different periods. The first one is basically focused on the creation of a sense of national identity, using the ideal of the heroic Indian.
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The second period, sometimes called Ultra-Romanticism , is marked by a profound influence of European themes and traditions, involving the melancholy, sadness and despair related to unobtainable love. Goethe and Lord Byron are commonly quoted in these works. American Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving 's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle , followed from onwards by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper , with their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by " noble savages ", similar to the philosophical theory of Rousseau , exemplified by Uncas , from The Last of the Mohicans.
There are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington Irving's essays and especially his travel books. Edgar Allan Poe 's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home, but the romantic American novel developed fully with the atmosphere and melodrama of Nathaniel Hawthorne 's The Scarlet Letter Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence and imagination, as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman.
The poetry of Emily Dickinson —nearly unread in her own time—and Herman Melville 's novel Moby-Dick can be taken as epitomes of American Romantic literature. By the s, however, psychological and social realism were competing with Romanticism in the novel. The European Romantic movement reached America in the early 19th century. American Romanticism was just as multifaceted and individualistic as it was in Europe.
go to site Like the Europeans, the American Romantics demonstrated a high level of moral enthusiasm, commitment to individualism and the unfolding of the self, an emphasis on intuitive perception, and the assumption that the natural world was inherently good, while human society was filled with corruption. Romanticism became popular in American politics, philosophy and art. The movement appealed to the revolutionary spirit of America as well as to those longing to break free of the strict religious traditions of early settlement.
The Romantics rejected rationalism and religious intellect. It appealed to those in opposition of Calvinism, which includes the belief that the destiny of each individual is preordained. The Romantic movement gave rise to New England Transcendentalism , which portrayed a less restrictive relationship between God and Universe.
The new philosophy presented the individual with a more personal relationship with God. Transcendentalism and Romanticism appealed to Americans in a similar fashion, for both privileged feeling over reason, individual freedom of expression over the restraints of tradition and custom. It often involved a rapturous response to nature. It encouraged the rejection of harsh, rigid Calvinism, and promised a new blossoming of American culture. American Romanticism embraced the individual and rebelled against the confinement of neoclassicism and religious tradition. The Romantic movement in America created a new literary genre that continues to influence American writers.
Novels, short stories, and poems replaced the sermons and manifestos of yore. Romantic literature was personal, intense, and portrayed more emotion than ever seen in neoclassical literature. America's preoccupation with freedom became a great source of motivation for Romantic writers as many were delighted in free expression and emotion without so much fear of ridicule and controversy.
They also put more effort into the psychological development of their characters, and the main characters typically displayed extremes of sensitivity and excitement.
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The works of the Romantic Era also differed from preceding works in that they spoke to a wider audience, partly reflecting the greater distribution of books as costs came down during the period.